The relationship between computer science and software engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term "software engineering" means, and how computer science is defined. The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis. Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science.
Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research. A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics.
Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoning , the "technocratic paradigm" which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering , and the "scientific paradigm" which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciences , identifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence.
As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human—computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science.
Theoretical Computer Science is mathematical and abstract in spirit, but it derives its motivation from practical and everyday computation. Its aim is to understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies. All studies related to mathematical, logic and formal concepts and methods could be considered as theoretical computer science, provided that the motivation is clearly drawn from the field of computing.
Data structures and algorithms is the study of commonly used computational methods and their computational efficiency. According to Peter Denning , the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be efficiently automated?
In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation. The second question is addressed by computational complexity theory , which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems.
Information theory is related to the quantification of information. This was developed by Claude Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.
Codes are used for data compression , cryptography , error detection and correction , and more recently also for network coding. Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods. Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features.
It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics , software engineering, and linguistics. It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals.
Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specification , development and verification of software and hardware systems. The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design.
They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing.
For industrial use, tool support is required. However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems , where safety or security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic calculi, formal languages , automata theory , and program semantics , but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification.
Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. Computer performance analysis is the study of work flowing through computers with the general goals of improving throughput , controlling response time , using resources efficiently, eliminating bottlenecks , and predicting performance under anticipated peak loads.
Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri nets , process calculi and the Parallel Random Access Machine model.
A distributed system extends the idea of concurrency onto multiple computers connected through a network. Computers within the same distributed system have their own private memory, and information is often exchanged among themselves to achieve a common goal.
Computer security is a branch of computer technology with an objective of protecting information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users.
Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding encryption and therefore deciphering decryption information. Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity. A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search data, through database models and query languages.
Computer graphics is the study of digital visual contents, and involves synthesis and manipulation of image data.
The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer vision , image processing , and computational geometry , and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games. Research that develops theories, principles, and guidelines for user interface designers, so they can create satisfactory user experiences with desktop, laptop, and mobile devices.
Scientific computing or computational science is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems.
In practical use, it is typically the application of computer simulation and other forms of computation to problems in various scientific disciplines. Artificial intelligence AI aims to or is required to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning, and communication found in humans and animals. From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference , artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics , symbolic logic , semiotics , electrical engineering , philosophy of mind , neurophysiology , and social intelligence.
AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic development , but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development , which require computational understanding. The starting-point in the late s was Alan Turing 's question "Can computers think? But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data.
Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software.
Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn't just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal maintenance and arrangement. Both computer applications software engineers and computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the fastest growing occupations from to Conferences are important events for computer science research.
During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Unlike in most other academic fields, in computer science, the prestige of conference papers is greater than that of journal publications.
Since computer science is a relatively new field, it is not as widely taught in schools and universities as other academic subjects. For example, in , Code.
In most countries, there is a significant gender gap in computer science education. In , approximately half of all computer science degrees in Malaysia were conferred to women.
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Glossaries of science and engineering. Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations. History of computer science. History of computing and History of informatics. Philosophy of computer science. Outline of computer science. Information theory and Coding theory. Computer architecture and Computer engineering. Concurrency computer science and Distributed computing.
Computer security and Cryptography. Computer graphics computer science. List of computer science conferences and Category: Outline of computer science and Glossary of computer science. Association for Computing Machinery Computer Science Teachers Association Informatics and Engineering informatics Information technology List of academic computer science departments List of computer scientists List of publications in computer science List of pioneers in computer science List of unsolved problems in computer science Outline of software engineering Technology transfer in computer science Turing Award Computer science — Wikipedia book.
Retrieved 14 May Who Was Charles Babbage? Retrieved 28 December Archived from the original on September 8, Retrieved 24 September Charles Babbage, pioneer of the computer. Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved 4 May Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Archived from the original PDF on May 25, Retrieved 19 November Conte dies at 85".
Retrieved December 12, Heroes of the Computer Revolution. The Science of Computing: Retrieved 7 July Retrieved November 24, Achievements and Challenges circa " PDF. Archived from the original PDF on September 11, Retrieved January 11, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs 2nd ed.
The computer revolution is a revolution in the way we think and in the way we express what we think. The essence of this change is the emergence of what might best be called procedural epistemology — the study of the structure of knowledge from an imperative point of view, as opposed to the more declarative point of view taken by classical mathematical subjects. Archived from the original on June 21, Digital Debate Is Put to Rest".
Retrieved 17 November The Bell System Technical Journal. The choice of a logarithmic base corresponds to the choice of a unit for measuring information.
If the base 2 is used the resulting units may be called binary digits, or more briefly bits , a word suggested by J. Darwin Among the Machines. Archived from the original on Werner Buchholz , the man who DID coin the term " byte " for an 8-bit grouping. Thus Buchholz's "byte" caught on everywhere.
I myself did not like the name for many reasons. Archived PDF from the original on The 60 bits are dumped into magnetic cores on six different levels. Thus, if a 1 comes out of position 9, it appears in all six cores underneath. The 0-diagonal is pulsed first, sending out the six bits 0 to 5, of which the Adder accepts only the first four Bits 4 and 5 are ignored.
Next, the 4 diagonal is pulsed. This sends out bits 4 to 9, of which the last two are again ignored, and so on. A byte was described as consisting of any number of parallel bits from one to six. Thus a byte was assumed to have a length appropriate for the occasion.
Its first use was in the context of the input-output equipment of the s, which handled six bits at a time. The possibility of going to 8 bit bytes was considered in August and incorporated in the design of Stretch shortly thereafter. The rationale for coining the term was explained there on page 40 as follows: Byte denotes a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units.
A term other than character is used here because a given character may be represented in different applications by more than one code, and different codes may use different numbers of bits ie, different byte sizes. In input-output transmission the grouping of bits may be completely arbitrary and have no relation to actual characters.
The term is coined from bite , but respelled to avoid accidental mutation to bit. For economy, however, the byte size was fixed at the 8 bit maximum, and addressing at the bit level was replaced by byte addressing. Michelson, Morley, and Metcalfe".
Retrieved March 4, Retrieved September 10, Retrieved 20 November The Definitive Guide, 5th Edition".
Online Computer Science Glossary. Computer science is the integration of principles and applications of technologies that are required to provide access to information. This science revolves around studying the structure and expressions of algorithms, which are then used to solve complex problems.
Computer Science - Computer science, or computing science, is an academic field that studys the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. Computer science has many sub-fields; some emphasize the computation of specific results (such as computer graphics), while others (such as computational complexity theory) relate to .
An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. See glossary of computer science. Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. 25 Computer science terms you need to know Every industry has its own set of jargon, and computer science is no exception. Familiarize yourself with these 25 computer science terms to wow your classmates and teachers from day one.
The term virus was first used as a technical computer science term by Fred Cohen in his paper "Computer Viruses Theory and Experiments", where he credits Len Adleman with coining it. Although Cohen's use of virus may have been the first academic use, it . Computer science definition is - a branch of science that deals with the theory of computation or the design of computers. How to use computer science in a sentence. a branch of science that deals with the theory of computation or the design of computers; the study of computers and their uses.